Archive for the ‘Administration’ Category

Workstation re-join to domain

microsoft_p73_05967_windows_server_2012_r2_1025605Sometimes… it happens.

You have a joyful domain with some workstations in it, and suddenly a workstation decides (or the PDC decides for that) that it would be great to exit the domain. And just to be sure you won’t understand what happened, when a legitimate user wants to logon it obtain such a message from the login attempt:

The trust relationship between this workstation and the primary domain failed.

There are many causes (human in front of all) for a workstation to leave a domain. But behind prevention of this problem, how can we solve it once it happened?

It happened yesterday to a Client of mine and I was asked to solve the problem. I had to Google around a little bit, but looking for the above message let me found some information about the problem itself and some workaround. All of those requires you to access your workstation with a local administrative account, but what if that workstation has been installed years ago, not by you, and nobody knows who is the local administrator and/or the password (even the person that is supposed to have installed that workstation)?

Well I found this workaround that at least let me enter the workstation, make the appropriate adjustment and then solve the problem. I can’t assure this will work again or it will work for you, but it worths to try.

  1. disconnect network cable (or turn off WiFi). This is to ensure that the workstation won’t reach the PDC when requesting logon
  2. perform logon normally with the user account. You might ask how is it possible, as the network connection has been cut out in the previous step. This can be done because Windows locally caches credentials in the event the PDC is not reachable…
  3. reconnect network cable
  4. open Computer Management. You will be asked for an Administrator account to use; as we don’t know who is the local administrator on the workstation, enter domain Administrator credentials (and cross your fingers)
  5. If Computer Management appears, switch to the Local User and Groups definitions. If Computer Management does not appears… you have finished to follow this guide. You’d better search a different approach.
  6. Normally the local Administrator account is disabled, but at least one local user should belong to Administrators group
  7. Select that user and reset its password. As you didn’t remember the password before, you might want to take note of the new password somewere, in the event you’ll have to use it…
  8. Pressing WIN+PAUSE will bring you to the System Status. Here you have to select the Advanced Properties, and you’ll be asked for an administrative account again. You can use once again the domain administrator credentials.
  9. Select the Network Identification tab. You will see the PC is currently joined to the domain, even though this is not working. You have to select to join a Workgroup, then give it a name (for instance TEMPGROUP).
  10. You’ll be asked for credentials of a user which can unjoin workstation from domain. Once again you’ll have to enter domain administrator credentials. You’ll be warned also that a local (administrative) account must be enabled on the workstation. We ensured it on step 7
  11. Once did, we have to restart the PC
  12. Upon PC restarting you can access it with the local administrative account given in step 7
  13. Then you will press WIN+PAUSE once again, select Advanced Properties, navigate to Network Identification tab and select to join a domain
  14. Enter the domain name, then you’ll be asked for domain administrator’s credentials
  15. Enter them, and your workstation will re-join to the domain
  16. Reboot the PC and then logon as the workstation’s normal user

That’s it.

It worked for me to rejoin a Windows 7 Pro workstation to a Windows Server 2012 R2 domain. I think that it could be used with different Client and Server O.S.. Let me know!


Create and test a bootable USB pen drive

A couple of usefull links to remember, with instruction about to create a bootable USB pen drive with Windows 10 (or any other O.S.) and a way to test it without having to reboot your PC:

Forcibly shutting down a Virtual Machine under ESXi

Even though this could be a last-used-resource, sometimes you need to shut down a unresponsive virtual machine in your ESXi server.

To do so the only way is to connect to the console via SSH (that should have been enabled from ESXi configuration). Then follow these steps:

  • Identify the machine you need to shut down. This is achieved running the following command and looking for the World ID of the machine you need to stop:
esxcli vm process list
  • issue the first kind of shut down option, that is a “try to shut down gracefully” command:
esxcli vm process kill --type=soft --world-id=xxxxx
  • if this not helps, try to improve your order in this way, performing a “shut down and don’t care”:
esxcli vm process kill --type=hard --world-id=xxxxx
  • if also this command doesn’t work… try this last resource, the “I told you to shut down and you do this now”:
esxcli vm process kill --type=force --world-id=xxxxx

Then you can perform all of the operation you need, for instance delete a stuck or corrupt machine from datastore.

If also the force mode doesn’t work, you’ll have to restart your ESXi server. But usually the force option is good enough to make all stucked host to turn off.


Acronis 2016 with NVMe disks

Today I helped a colleague to restore its Dell laptop from an Acronis image. The process should have been easy to perform, but there was a little problem… Its laptop was using an M.2 Toshiba SSD (specifically the model THNSN51T02DU7). If you use the Acronis launcher even in WinPE mode, the M.2 disk is not detected.

And now? What to do?

Googling around a bit I found this site which explain (in Italian, many thanks to Gianluca Cecca) how to integrate a Samsung 950 Pro M.2 disk into Acronis. The problem was: where to find THNSN51T02DU7 drivers? We had to look around again with Google, and finally we came up with this explanation:

Intel and Samsung offer a proprietary NVMe driver for their NVMe SSDs, but Toshiba does not. The XG3 utilizes the standard Microsoft NVMe driver that comes baked into Windows 8-10. This makes sense because the XG3 is an OEM SSD, and not needing an additional driver for best performance makes setup easier for OEMs.
So all we had to do was:
  1. search for the original Windows 10 drivers
  2. download them
  3. integrate them into the Acronis WinPE image
  4. cross our fingers…

Locating the driver to download wasn’t an easy taks to perform. Fortunately on Dell website there was an explanation of a similar task related to WinPE and storage controller drivers. So we had to download the Intel Rapid Storage drivers from Intel’s web site (following the lin provided into Dell’s site, we were redirected to a driver version that wasn’t the last one available; Intel site then suggested us to download the last version).

We choosed to download the package from the site ( if your sistem is running in 32 bit mode, but it’s really improbable), then followed the instruction from the integration guide. Basically here are the instructions:

  1. Create the Acronis loader in WinPE format from within your Acronis True Image, writing it onto an USB pen drive
  2. Install Windows ADK; you might have it already installed if you are a developer. You can try to open ad administrator command prompt, then issue the following instruction. If you receive any errors, you might have to download Windows ADK
  3. Create three folders in C:\, naming them Temp, Drivers and Mount
    Copy BOOT.WIM file from the Source folder of Acronis WinPE pen drive, into C:\Temp
  4. Extract the drivers from into C:\Drivers
  5. Open the Administrator command prompt
  6. Issue the following command to mount the image
    dism /mount-wim /wimfile:c:\temp\boot.wim /index:1 /mountdir:c:\mount
  7. Issue the following command to merge drivers into image
    dism /add-driver /image:c:\mount /driver:c:\drivers /forceunsigned
  8. Issue the following command to integrate the drivers into the driver library
    dism /get-drivers /image:c:\mount
  9. Issue the following command to write changes into the .WIM file and release resources
    dism /unmount-wim /mountdir:c:\mount /commit
  10. Copy the new BOOT.WIM file from C:\Temp into Sources folder of Acronis WinPE pen drive
  11. Eject pen drive and delete the Temp, Drivers and Mount folders created in point 3.

    Your disk should now be visible from Acronis loader and you can proceed to data restoration.

Further steps

If you found that your Acronis loader won’t recognize your M.2 disk, probably you don’t need to read  more, as you already succeded to boot up your PC from the USB key. But what if you don’t?

Modern PC use UEFI boot process with a secure option into BIOS. This is to avoid your PC to be booted from a device you don’t trust. It might be needed to enter the BIOS and add your Acronis WinPE boot pen drive to the trusted boot sources. How to perform this task may vary from BIOS to BIOS, and you should read your PC manual to perform these steps.

Installing ESXi 5.5 U2 on PCEngines apu1d4

AlertI started writing this article on 10th January, 2015. But I didn’t have so much time to finish it… Now time has come, so I decided to finish this work and publish it. Many time has passed by, and many things have changed. A new ESXi version has been carried out, and new APU hardware is coming soon. But I think that this article can be a good starting point also for headless installation of new ESXi and other *nix based headless devices.

Unfortunately installation was not successfully, or better speaking installation correctly ended, but device didn’t turned up as I expected it would. I attempted many ways to overcome this problem, but I haven’t found any of them to correctly work. I posted all of this history here, in the hope that someone would find what I missed.


In this article I’m introducing a step by step guide on how to install ESXi 5.5 U2 on PCEngines apu1d4 board.
apu1d4 is a small computer board that can be used for routers, firewalls, VOIP, dedicated servers, special purpose network plumbing, education tools… It’s equipped with an AMD G series T40E, 1 GHz dual core with 64 bit support processor, 4GB RAM, three Gigabit Ethernet ports and a serial console. You can read all of its specification here.

This setup guide it’s also suitable to install many other Linux distributions.


As apu1d4 does not have a video output, setup must be performed via serial console. This is the major issue when installing ESXi, as the plain setup is intended to be used with a video card. But as it is Linux-based, we can turn on the serial console redirection to handle all of the setup process from here.

In this guide I’m assuming to install ESXi on a mSATA SSD installed on the board. Please make sure the SSD is detected by board BIOS before starting the setup process (you should see your mSATA ID into the BIOS boot messages on the serial console).

You need the following hardware:

  • an apu1d4 board already boxed (for passive cooling to work), with an internal mSATA drive installed
  • an empty USB pen drive (at least 1GB)
  • a null modem cable
  • a PC with a serial port or a USB to serial converter (you may omit the null modem cable if you use a USB to DCE converter like this one, that is intended to be used to connect directly to a console port)

and the following software:

  • ESXi 5.5 U2 install ISO (you don’t need to burn it onto a CD)
  • a utility to create a bootable USB key from an ISO. There are many utilities to do that; here I’m using Rufus
  • a serial communication software which allows you to connect to console port; here I’m using PuTTY
  • a utility to open .zip files; here I’m using 7-Zip
  • a general purpose text editor; here I’m using PSPad
  • the two file contained into this ESXi setup patch:

A note on the patch: apu1d4 board integrates three Gigabit Ethernet channels based on the Realtek RTL8111E chipset. As RTL8111E support has been removed from ESXi setup since version 5.5, but it was still present in 5.1 setup, we need to extract the drivers from 5.1 installer and integrate them into the 5.5 one. This is needed as without installing and activating the drivers, you will end your setup into a “No network hardware detected” screen. How to integrate this driver in the setup is better explained later.

Step by step guide

Installation process can be resumed in the following steps:

  1. create ESXi 5.5 U2 USB boot pen drive (called pen drive in the following steps)
    1. unpack ISO to pen drive and make it bootable
    2. patch pen drive to load RTL8111 drivers
    3. patch pen drive to work with serial console
  2. install ESXi
  3. finalize setup

Create ESXi 5.5 U2 USB boot pen drive

Any tool you can find to extract an ISO image to a pen drive and make it bootable is suitable to create ESXi setup pen drive. I frufusound Rufus to be easy and clear to use. It’s also OpenSource and sources can be grabbed from it’s home page. From Rufus main window you have to select the USB drive related to the pen drive you want to use, the partitioning method (usually the default value is correct) and obviously the ESXi ISO image to store on key.

If should be warned that the menu.c32 file which comes on the ISO is obsolete and you should substitute it with a freshly downloaded version. Please accept this suggestion and  let Rufus patch this file.

You should end up in few minutes with the key ready to be patched.

Patch pen drive to load RTL8111 drivers

As said ESXi 5.5 U2 setup does not include RTL8111 drivers. If you do not patch the pen drive with those drivers, installation cannot be performed and you’ll receive a “No network card present” message. Usually drivers can be added later installing the so called VIB packages, but as the network card is considered to be part of the core setup, if no network card can be detected during setup phase, process will be stopped.

To avoid this problem a clean and correct way should be to install ESXi 5.1 version and then perform a version upgrade, but this could take long. A faster-and-quite-clean method is to include ESXi 5.1 drivers directly on 5.5 U2 setup, and that’s what we are going to do now.

When googling around this problem you’ll find several .vib files packaged into a .zip file, that should unpack to upload .vibs to your ESXi machine. Basically each .vib file is in turn a .zip package, containing the driver(s) itself and some descriptors. I simply extracted and repacked the two drivers included in the following .vib:


into a single .zip file that you’ll find attached here. All you have to do is to download the .zip containing the two drivers (net-r816.v00 and net-r816.v01) and extract them onto the pen drive, in its root directory.

After that you have to edit the boot.cfg file located on the pen drive, and add those driver to load list. To do so open your favorite editor (be carefull: you should not use NotePad because it lacks support for UNIX style line endings; you’d better use a general purpose editor like PSPad). Locate the row

modules=/b.b00 --- ...

and then add the following in your favorite position (I added them after all of the net_xxx drivers):

--- /net-r816.v00 --- /net-r816.v01

Save the file and you’re done with the patch.

Patch pen drive to work with serial console

In the last preparation step we have to patch configuration files to tell loader and setup to redirect standard output and standard input over a serial console. This step involves editing three configuration files, that must be still edited with the general purpose editor.


Patching this file only requires you to add the following two lines AT TOP of the file:

SERIAL 0 115200


Patching this file requires you to add the following two lines AT TOP of the file:

SERIAL 0 115200

Then you have to locate the line

  APPEND -c boot.cfg

located in the LABEL install section of the configuration. At the end of the line you have to add the extra parameters needed to instruct loader to redirect standard input and output. Line should look like this:

  APPEND -c boot.cfg text gdbPort=none logPort=none tty2Port=com1


You have again to patch boot.cfg, as done in the step before. Modification involves the kernel option parameter passed; you have to locate the line


and add the extra parameters needed to redirect standard input and output. Line should look like this:

kernelopt=runweasel text nofb com1_baud=115200 com1_Port=0x3f8 tty2Port=com1 gdbPort=none logPort=none

Install ESXi

You are now ready to start ESXi setup. Put the pen drive into the USB port, connect your PC to the console port, start PuTTY and power up the board. You should notice BIOS startup in the console port:

PC Engines APU BIOS build date: Apr  5 2014
Reading data from file [bootorder]
SeaBIOS (version ?-20140405_120742-frink)
SeaBIOS (version ?-20140405_120742-frink)
Found coreboot cbmem console @ df150400
Found mainboard PC Engines APU
Relocating init from 0x000e8e71 to 0xdf1065e0 (size 39259)
Found CBFS header at 0xfffffb90
found file "bootorder" in cbmem
CPU Mhz=1000
Found 27 PCI devices (max PCI bus is 05)
Copying PIR from 0xdf160400 to 0x000f27a0
Copying MPTABLE from 0xdf161400/df161410 to 0x000f25b0 with length 1ec
Copying ACPI RSDP from 0xdf162400 to 0x000f2590
Copying SMBIOS entry point from 0xdf16d800 to 0x000f2570
Using pmtimer, ioport 0x808
Scan for VGA option rom
EHCI init on dev 00:12.2 (regs=0xf7f08420)
Found 1 lpt ports
Found 2 serial ports
AHCI controller at 11.0, iobase f7f08000, irq 11
EHCI init on dev 00:13.2 (regs=0xf7f08520)
EHCI init on dev 00:16.2 (regs=0xf7f08620)
Searching bootorder for: /rom@img/setup
Searching bootorder for: /rom@img/memtest
Searching bootorder for: /pci@i0cf8/*@11/drive@0/disk@0
AHCI/0: registering: "AHCI/0: KINGSTON SMS200S330G ATA-8 Hard-Disk (28626 MiBytes)"
OHCI init on dev 00:12.0 (regs=0xf7f04000)
OHCI init on dev 00:13.0 (regs=0xf7f05000)
OHCI init on dev 00:14.5 (regs=0xf7f06000)
OHCI init on dev 00:16.0 (regs=0xf7f07000)
Searching bootorder for: /pci@i0cf8/usb@12,2/storage@1/*@0/*@0,0
Searching bootorder for: /pci@i0cf8/usb@12,2/usb-*@1
Searching bootorder for: /pci@i0cf8/usb@16,2/storage@1/*@0/*@0,0
Searching bootorder for: /pci@i0cf8/usb@16,2/usb-*@1
USB MSC vendor='Multiple' product='Card  Reader' rev='1.00' type=0 removable=1
scsi_is_ready returned -1
Unable to configure USB MSC drive.
Unable to configure USB MSC device.
USB MSC vendor='' product='' rev='PMAP' type=0 removable=1
USB MSC blksize=512 sectors=1970176
All threads complete.
Scan for option roms
Running option rom at c000:0003

iPXE ( 00:00.0 C000 PCI2.10 PnP PMMpmm call arg1=1
pmm call arg1=0
+DF0F04A0pmm call arg1=1
pmm call arg1=0
+DF04C510 C000

Searching bootorder for: /rom@genroms/pxeboot.rom

Build date: Apr  5 2014
System memory size: 4592 MB

Press F12 for boot menu.

Searching bootorder for: HALT
drive 0x000f24d0: PCHS=0/0/0 translation=lba LCHS=977/32/63 s=1970176
drive 0x000f2500: PCHS=16383/16/63 translation=lba LCHS=1024/255/63 s=58626288
Space available for UMB: c1000-ee800, f0000-f24d0
Returned 253952 bytes of ZoneHigh
e820 map has 7 items:
  0: 0000000000000000 - 000000000009fc00 = 1 RAM
  1: 000000000009fc00 - 00000000000a0000 = 2 RESERVED
  2: 00000000000f0000 - 0000000000100000 = 2 RESERVED
  3: 0000000000100000 - 00000000df14e000 = 1 RAM
  4: 00000000df14e000 - 00000000e0000000 = 2 RESERVED
  5: 00000000f8000000 - 00000000f9000000 = 2 RESERVED
  6: 0000000100000000 - 000000011f000000 = 1 RAM
enter handle_19:
Booting from Hard Disk...
Booting from 0000:7c00

SYSLINUX 4.07 EDD 2013-07-25 Copyright (C) 1994-2013 H. Peter Anvin et al

SYSLINUX 4.07 2013-07-25 Copyright (C) 1994-2013 H. Peter Anvin et al

and then will appear ESXi installation menu.

Finalizing ??

And here we come. You expect to see ESXi installation menu… but what you see it’s only a “Relocating modules and starting up the kernel…” message. There are several reason that could lead to this error, and the most common is that you’re trying to install ESXi on a machine with a bad BIOS, which is not correctly working with your video card, or a BIOS that it is supposed to talk to a video card that it’s instead missing from a device (like APU) that is headless.

Somewhere (like here) you could be driven to press SHIFT+O on console to enter the high level command line interface, than issue some switches to properly redirect console message (that’s what we were supposing to do when modifying the boot files). I tried all of these workaround but had no success.

If you want to try… let me know your workaround, if you found any.

I’m just tinking to give over ESXi on the APU and to install a plain pfSense firewall (that is my first need on the APU, and I already installed on another APU at work).

News from “The Lab”… part 2

HP DL380 G4 front vewOk, finally my DL380 G4 (I talked about it here) is up and running, with VMWare ESXi 4.1 Update 3.

Strictly from an hardware point of view, this server is still a good machine: it has 8GB of RAM and only three 36GB 15000rpm SCSI hard drives. I disconnected the other three hard drives to lower power consumption, that is now attested around to 290W.

From a software point of view, I had several options to follow. My first idea was to install ESXi, and then run one or more virtual machines depending on what I needed at the moment. As current 5.5 VMWare ESXi release won’t run on this hardware (due to lacking VT support), I had to use a earlier version. The latest supported version should be 3.1 Update 5, but in several sites it can be found that also 4.1 Update 3, stated as “not supported on this hardware”, seems to run without any problem, at least if you don’t run a 64 bit host. Another option was to install a bare Linux system, and then to use VMWare Player to run different machines, but this solution it was discarded, because I wanted to to have the opportunity to test ESXi.

Installing ESXi was a simple task, with except to the HP Proliant Support Pack for VMWare (at the moment I’m not sure if it’s fully up and running with the whole option pack).

Now I’m thinking of adding a virtual appliance based on Turnkey Linux 64, and then I’ll find out soon if the 64 bit host limitation is true.

Update: I loaded TurnKey FileServer 64 bit edition in OVF format. Its deployment was succesfull, but virtual machine refused to turn on. A quick look on the event log showed that 64 bit support was disabled for the machine, because the processor has not a true 64 bit computation capability (the two provided Xeon are Nocona core based, with only EM64T instruction set extension). So finally I had to switch back to a 32 bit edition of my appliance, but that’s should not be a problem.

Solve Windows XP svchost.exe 100% CPU load

Today I think I found the perfect solution to Windows XP svchost.exe 100% CPU load problem.

Just a step behind to show what this problem is. I use some XP virtual machines (but this problem applies to real machines too) to develop and test software. A couple of them (one running in VMWare Player, the other running in Virtual PC) suddenly slowed down to a unpractical speed. “What the … is happening now” – I thought….

Running the taskmanager showed a svchost.exe process taking up the 100% of CPU time. Uhm that was really suspicious, so I had to investigate more. I used Process Explorer from SysInternals (now Microsoft) to detect who was that process and what it was doing to my poor machine.

svchost.exe is a part of XP (and others Microsoft’s NT-like OS) that takes care of running different processes as services, so it’s definitively a kind of srvany launcher (a commonly used program to start an executable as a NT service). But why was it taking up so much CPU time? Ok, to cut the longest debugging part, I stopped, one at a time, the services launched by the faulty copy of svchost, and I found that the Windows Update Service was responsible of taking up all of the CPU time.

Ok, once found were the problem was, now I had to find the solution for it. After googling a bit around, I found that this was a widely known problem afflicting XP with Internet Explorer 8, but the solution was not so obvious. Somewhere it was stated to clear the downloaded patch folder located in %WINDIR%\Software Distribution, deleting it after the service has been stopped, but that didn’t fix the problem.

The final solution that worked for me in both my virtual machines was:

  • stop Windows Update Service from management console or command line
  • start Internet Explorer and connect to
  • search for KB2898785, that is Cumulative Security Update for Internet Explorer 8 for Windows XP
  • download the executable
  • close Internet Explorer
  • launch the patch and wait it to end the installation (you will be warned it has to restart system)

After restart, you will be able to connect to Microsoft Update or Windows Update to download other updates, and svchost.exe should not take up the whole CPU time again.

Windows Server 2008 R2 backup (wbadmin)

It’s a long time since I dont’ write… Many things happened and many more coming..

This is just a small note to remember a couple of interesting links related to Windows Server 2008 R2 backup utility (wbadmin) troubles you may have. This blog article is a good starting point for having an idea on the problem.

If you try to backup your data to a network location hosted on a Linux-based system (but I think this problem can be found also elsewhere), wbadmin could fail with the following error:

The requested operation could not be completed
due to a file system limitation.

This happens only if you try to backup only some directories and not the entire disk(s) you have. Why this problem? This is related in how Linux manage sparse files, required for such a backup. This link explains the problem in details and a way to solve it, supposing you can modify Samba configuration on target machine. If you cannot modify your configuration, you have to backup the entire disk instead of single directories.

More information on sparse files can be found in the documentation of fsutil command.

rsync to non standard port

It’s a long time since I don’t write on my blog… so just a simple post to help me remember a non standard rsync command syntax.

rsync is a powerful synchronization tool, that could help to perform a fast-and-secure backup of files and folder to a remote server. Usually rsync uses ssh to connect to the remote server, thus transfers are secure. But rsync relies on standard ssh configuration to connect to that server. What happens if you changed, for instance,  ssh daemon listen port?

rsync has a command line option to specify what kind of remote shell you would use to connect to the server. This way you can specify the non standard port to connect to. Say you want to transfer all *.tar.gz files from local directory to the remote server myremoteserver, using ssh shell connecting to port 1234 with user user. The command line you have to use is the following:

rsync --progress -vrae 'ssh -p 1234' *.tar.gz user@myremoteserver:/path/to/remote/directory

The only pitfall on this command is you’ll be asked for a connection password, so you cannot schedule this command to be executed automatically. But I know there is a way to logon automatically, providing the local system with a certificate to access the remote system. I’ll write more on this in the next day.

News from “The Lab”…

DL380 G4Ok, it’s time to update the blog…

I’ve spent the past days enjoying my “new” HP Proliant DL380 G4 (specs here). Well new is not a correct word: I fount this server on eBay, and I had to buy it.. My idea was to use it as a VMWare ESXi server machine, to test O.S. installation and configuration in virtual machines. Unfortunately it came with only 1GB of RAM, too few to have ESXi running. I’m actually waiting an 8GB RAM memory upgrade, from an eBay auction.

In the meantime I installed Linux Slackware 13.37 on it. It was not so difficult, except for LILO installation. Will provide details on it as soon as possible. Stay tuned!

Update: as I promised, this is first update about Linux Slackware 13.37 installation on my HP Proliant.

Basically, when you install LILO as bootloader, the setup procedure seems to fail to locate the correct position of the MBR in which to write the loader itself. This is probably due to a desktop oriented setup procedure, that assumes you’re working with a standard hardware. Before installing anything on the server, you have to create at least one logical volume using RAID controller’s BIOS. This system has 6 36GB U320 SCSI drives; I decided to create two RAID5 volumes: the first one spanned on disks 0,2 and 4 and the second one spanned on disks 1,3 and 5 (this way, as there are two rows of three disks in the rack, each volume is so located in a row).

When you begin your installation you have to partition your disk using fdisk or cfdisk, and this is your first issue: which device do you have to specify to the partitioning software? After navigating around in /dev finally I found that RAID devices are located under /dev/cciss/c0d0 (first volume) and /dev/cciss/c0d1 (second volume). So I partitioned /dev/cciss/c0d0 into three partitions:

  • /dev/cciss/c0d0p1 mounted as /
  • /dev/cciss/c0d0p2 mounted as /home
  • /dev/cciss/c0d0p3 as swap space

Finally, after installing all of the needed packages, LILO installation came up. It was able to locate my boot partition to be /dev/cciss/c0d0p1 and I expected it would also locate /dev/cciss/c0d0 as my boot disk, but it specified /dev/hda as boot disk!! It was too late to get something to work, so I turned all my system off.

Few days ago I decided to fix LILO setup. I had to boot from the installation disk, and when I was able to logon in the setup shell, I did the following:

  • first I created a /mount mountpoint
  • then I mounted my /dev/cciss/c0d0p1 partition in the mountpoint created above (mount /dev/cciss/c0d0p1 /mount)
  • I changed my root to /mount (chroot /mount)
  • I edited my /etc/lilo.conf (vi /etc/lilo.conf). As I changed my root to /mount, I was editing my system’s lilo.conf)
  • in lilo.conf I changed the line boot=/dev/hda with boot=/dev/cciss/c0d0
  • I saved the newly created lilo.conf
  • I issued the command lilo -v

The newly created configuration was written to /dev/cciss/c0d0 MBR. I removed the installation disk from the drive and rebooted the system with CTRL+ALT+CANC. It worked!!